This study has been carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology based on the ISO-standards 14044/48, for the products cellulose, ethanol (96% and 99%), lignosulfonates (liquid and powder mix), vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid from Borregaard’s factories in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit has been 1 tonne dry matter.
The study is a cradle-to-gate analysis, which means that the products are followed from extraction of raw materials to the gate at Borregaard and that the use and disposal phases are not considered. Because this analysis will be used for developing EPDs, the impact of 1000 km transport of product to customer is also shown. The analysis has, as far as possible, followed the requirements in the PCR for ’Organic chemicals’, and deviations are specifically commented on. Most of the data used in this 2015 study is from 2014, and the LCA model has been developed in several steps from the first analysis based in 2009 (Modahl, Brekke and Raadal, 2009 a, b, c). The data material is provided by Borregaard. Mass and energy has been used for allocation of burdens inside the Borregaard factory area.
 LCA = Life Cycle Assessment. See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_cycle_assessment
ISO 14044: Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines
ISO 14048: Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Data documentation format
 EPD = Environmental Product Declaration. Standardised (ISO 14025) method for presentation of LCA-results. See also: http://www-epd-norge.no/ (in Norwegian) and http://www.environdec.com/pageld.asp (in English).
 PCR = Product Category Rules. Common and harmonised calculation rules to ensure that similar procedures are used when creating EPDs. Groups of products usually differ in their inherent environmental performance requiring specific rules to the product group, so-called Product Category Rules (PCR) to be prepared.