This report describes relevant environmental, social and cost aspects that should be considered in an LCSA model developed for FuturePack case studies. Each raw material chapter (chapters 2.1-2.4) addresses environmental and social LCA issues that a state-of-the-art LCSA model should include.
The raw materials identified as possible raw materials for Norwegian bioplastics imply different importance of potential impact categories that should be included in the LCSA model. The results of WP1 (mapping of suitable raw materials for co-pyrolysis), to be concluded in the first quarter of 2018, will be important for the LCSA model.
Potential environmental impacts that could be included in the model are:
• LUC (iLUC and dLUC)
• Depletion of natural resources
• global warming
• ozone layer depletion
• photochemical oxidation
• ocean acidification
• human toxicity
• eco-system toxicity
The model development should also consider the inclusion of global warming potential assessment associated with black carbon (soot), changes in SOC, and albedo effects. It is also possible to consider the inclusion of site specific assessment of foreground system impacts, when the specific
geographical source of raw materials and sites for production facilities are known. The final list of impacts to be included in the LCA part of the LCSA will depend on the decisions made about raw materials and the LCSA goal and scope definition to be carried out in 2018.
S-LCA indicators can be more interesting to consumers than more traditional environmental LCA indicators. This is likely to be due to a more emotive response to the types of indicator described (e.g. child labour vs global warming potential). In order to perform an S-LCA the project team will need to identify the relevant stakeholders to be included in the study, as well as the impact categories of interest. The FuturePack project partners are stakeholders, whose vision, values and opinions should form the basis for the decisions about the relevant stakeholder groups and impact categories included in the model.
The LCC part of the model will not attempt to monetarise externalities, these are already represented in the form of the LCA and S-LCA. A list of relevant costs to be included in an LCC is given in Chapter 5. The relevant perspective for the LCC exercise and the costs to be included, will be defined in the goal and scope.
Infrastructure data will need to be included in the LCSA model. A pragmatic approach will be adopted for estimating infrastructure for new technologies, based on adapting inventory data for current process technologies from currently available LCI databases.