NORSUS rapportserie

2021

Østre Toten kommune ønsket å gjennomføre et prosjekt for å sette fokus på matsvinn og klimavennlig mat i omsorgssektoren. Da prosjektet startet i november 2019 hadde kommunen på det nærmeste ferdigstilt et nytt sykehjem som skulle erstatte to av de eksisterende institusjonene. Det nye sykehjemmet, Labo helse og omsorgssenter, fikk medarbeidere fra fire tidligere kjøkken og tre ulike institusjoner. En annen institusjon, Fjellvoll, ble omgjort til omsorgsboliger med bemanning.


Østre Toten kommune ønsket å implementere felles metoder og rutiner, kompetanseheving og etablering av en felles kultur ved det nye kjøkkenet. Hovedmålet for prosjektet var å redusere klimagassutslipp gjennom å redusere matsvinnet med 20% i løpet av prosjektperioden og innføre mer klimavennlige menyer. Prosjektet er finansiert av Miljødirektoratets klimasatsmidler og Østre Toten kommune.


Prosjektet ble delt inn i 4 faser:
• Situasjonsanalyse med gjennomføring av måling av matsvinn, gjennomføring av intervjuer med relevante ansatte for å kartlegge muligheter og utfordringer for å redusere matsvinn og innføre mer klimavennlige menyer, og sammenstilling av resultatene
• Planlegging og prioritering av tiltak hvor det ble gjennomført en workshop med de ansatte på avdelingene for å identifisere og prioritere tiltak
• Gjennomføring med innføring av nye rutiner for å redusere matsvinn, kompetanseheving innenfor klimavennlig mat for ansatte på kjøkkenet og utarbeidelse av målgruppetilpasset informasjonsmateriell
• Evaluering hvor det i forkant ble gjennomført en ny periode med måling av matsvinn, og gjennomføring av workshoper for ansatte på kjøkkenet og på avdelingene, lederne og en felles workshop for alle hvor målet var å prioritere tiltakene som skulle videreføres.


Å redusere matsvinnet i omsorgssektoren der det serveres mat vil, i tillegg til reduserte klimagassutslipp, bidra til reduserte innkjøpskostnader, bearbeidingskostnader og lønnskostnader. I tillegg kan svinnreduserende tiltak bidra til bedre holdninger hos ansatte slik at den enkelte får større bevissthet om matsvinn og endrer atferd privat. Svinnreduserende tiltak kan også bidra til bedre utnyttelse av råvarer og utvikling av nye retter med bruk av restemat.

2020

This report summaries three different activities performed during the SirkuærPlast project. Life cycle costing (LCC) in SirkulærPlast
This section outlines the application of life cycle costing (LCC) principles. A general background to LCC is followed by a summary of how LCC is applicable in the SirkulærPlast context, followed by a summary of the outcomes within the project. Potential broader effects of the project, Scaling
The project as a whole has realised a reduction in demand for virgin plastic for some product applications. This part of the report assesses the potential effects of the project were the outcomes applied at a broader regional or national scale. If the gains achieved in the SirkulærPlast project were
applied to all plastic product producers in Norway, then this could achieve a 3-5% reduction in plastic use nationwide.


A 3% nationwide reduction corresponds to around 10 000 tonnes of plastic and hence 30 000 tonnes CO2-equivalents, also 800 TJ of energy. Norway’s total CO2 emissions for all activities are around 50 million tonnes per annum and the total energy consumption is around 328 TWh or 1.2×1018 J.
This means that the project outcomes afford the possibility of reducing Norwegian national CO2 emissions by around 0.6% and total energy consumption by around 0.07%.


REACH Assessment
In order to be able to assess the toxic effects in an LCA perspective, the input data needs to include information about the raw materials and chemical compositions of the relevant additives. This was not possible to obtain due to confidentiality and competition aspects associated with additives for plastics, as well as reluctance to disclose potential environmental hazards, which limits access to this kind of information. However, under REACH all additive suppliers are required to provide a safety data sheet that provides the users with information about potential hazards and remediation measures. These datasheets were used to obtain information about hazard labelling (relevant for REACH) and safety
precautions advised for each of the additives assessed.

2020

ReducePack er et Forskningsrådsfinansiert prosjekt, no 296335,  hvor nye alternativer for å redusere plastbruk i matemballasje utredes med hensyn til funksjonalitet og miljøprofil for matvarene (margarin, fersk kylling, prosessert kjøtt og poteter). Formålet med rapporten er å presentere en kartlegging av hvilke metoder som kan omfatte plastforsøplingsproblematikken i et livsløpsperspektiv (LCA) og hvorvidt det er stor risiko for naturforsøpling av matemballasjen undersøkt i ReducePack. Konklusjonen fra rapporten er at det per i dag ikke er gode nok metoder for å inkludere plastforsøpling som del av en helhetlig emballasjestudie på dette nivå. Til gjengjeld er det gjort en kartlegging og kortfattede oppsummeringer av eksisterende forslag til hvordan plastforsøpling på sikt kan implementeres i LCA. Samtidig ble det funnet ut at for matvarene inkludert i denne studien er det ikke en signifikant sannsynlighet at emballasjematerialene vil bli spredt i naturen.

2020

This report presents the results of Task 1.2 of the PacKnoPlast project. Task 1.2 shall map and characterise the different options for waste management alternatives for post-consumer plastic packaging regarding loss of plastic throughout the value chains and quality of the plastic reaching the recycling plants. This report is the deliverable from Task 1.2. PacKnoPlast focusses on plastic packaging for food and thus the discussion and work presented in this report also has this focus.
The best available knowledge about the value chain for plastic food packaging in Norway and potential losses of macro- and microplastic from this value chain are presented, based on a literature study and a mass balance analysis. In addition, a description of the parameters influencing the quality of the plastics reaching the recycling plant is given. NORSUS has not gathered new data, but based this report on existing data sources.

2020

On behalf of Foods of Norway, a calculation for yeast has been carried out by NORSUS. The yeast production is based on the process developed in Foods of Norway. Beyond being a delivery to Foods of Norway, this work is also important for further work in the Livestock project where NORSUS is a partner. The project was carried out during 2020 and the study is based on data input from Borregaard and NORCE, who has been a subcontractor for Foods of Norway.

This report documents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of production of yeast based on BALI sugar from spruce. Environmental impact from the production of BALI (Borregaard Advanced Lignin) sugar is calculated from confidential data from Borregaard. The nitrogen source of yeast production can be either inorganic or organic. In this study, data for ammonia, waste and blood have been used. The data basis for the latter two is based on emissions from the chicken slaughter process where economic allocation has been applied. The prices are confidential and not stated in the report. There is a degree of uncertainty to these prices as they may change in a new market.


The results show that BALI sugar accounts for the largest share of the environmental impact for all impact categories, however sugar is also the raw material that makes up the majority in quantity. Ammonia and other raw materials accounts for smaller impacts. The impact from processing of yeast accounts for a small share of climate change, therwise negligible.


If an organic N-source is used, chemicals and minerals are not required. When using offal and blood as Nsources,
the environmental impacts for yeast are lower compared to yeast where the N-source comes from ammonia. The only exception is for land occupation, were the burden is slightly higher for yeast with offal Nsource. How much lower depends on the value of the N-source (economic allocation).


A possible further development of the LCA may be inclusion of the benefit of using the biogenic CO2 emitted from the fermentation process in other industrial purposes (i.e. greenhouse production). Then the environmental impact from the upstream value chain can be allocated between the product(s) and yeast. The environmental impact of yeast will then be reduced accordingly.

2021

This report is a part of the DGRADE project, funded by the Norwegian Research Council and Handelens Miljøfond. It presents the status of ongoing development of the LCA methodology with respect to plastic littering issues and how plastic products can be eco-designed for the avoidance of littering.

This report first summarises knowledge regarding littering, the reasons for it and its consequences. Thereafter, the inclusion of littering within the current LCA methodology and on-going work is described. Finally, a summarised literature review and synopses of research into the littered environment is presented, laying the foundation of eco-design tips for singe use plastic products for the avoidance of littering. The literature review comprises issues such as the amount, composition and location of the litter; research on the litterer, including social, demographic and behavioural factors; and research concerning littered items with reference such as size, form or design, which might influence littering. The literature review forms the basis for identifying independent considerations with respect to the littering potential of a specific item or product group.

The report concludes with suggestions, pointers and advice concerning eco-design, as a contribution to the work on the reduction of littering of single use plastic articles. These suggestions do not apply solely to single use articles and can be relevant in the case of many other product types.