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On the final day of the SYLFEED project, one of our research managers, Andreas Brekke, presented the environmental performance of a protein fish feed ingredient made from beech. The project is managed and owned by the French technology company Arbiom and has included partners from Iceland, Sweden, Belgium, and the Netherlands, in addition to France and Norway. NORSUS has scrutinised the environmental performance of the life cycle of the protein, SylPro®, from the harvesting of wood in the forest to the feeding of the fish in the water. Results from this life cycle has been compared to other protein sources, like soy protein concentrate, fish meal, rape seed meal, and more novel sources like insect meal and bacterial protein meal. The compilation and analyses of data and models for the other protein sources have been an important part of the project. The LCA work in the project has used the newest methods for characterising impacts connected to land and water use and NORSUS has contributed to increased knowledge on how they can be used and results interpreted. The final webinar will soon be published on the project website

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Senior research scientist Ingunn Saur Modahl has accepted to be part of the board for the newly established CCUS Norge / CCUS Norway.

CCUS Norway is a non-commercial member association, and the goal is to build competence and share experiences regarding environmental and resource issues connected to capture, use and storage of CO2. CCUS Norway is scientific oriented, and aims at contributing to a better climate and establishing green jobs. CCUS Norway will implement projects and act as a national center for CCS/CCUS competence. Membership is open for all, and is especially targeted towards industrial companies, technology suppliers, consultants, researchers and academia. The founders of CCU Norway are Borregaard, FREVAR, Kvitebjørn Bio-El, IFE, Østfold Energi, NORSUS, Sarpsborg Avfallsenergi, Biobe, Borg Havn and Stormkast Utvikling, and the first board meeting was held Monday 16th August 2021.


This report is a delivery of the project Industrial CCS cluster at Øra and regionally, supported by CLIMIT.
The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from human activities is one of the most important environmental issues of the twenty first century. The largest source of GHG is carbon dioxide, which has increased tremendously in the last decades, mainly due to fossil fuels combustion for power generation and automotive transportation. CCS (carbon capture and storage) is a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by capturing and subsequently storing the carbon dioxide (CO2) permanently. CCU (carbon capture and utilization) represents a way of recycling the carbon in the captured CO2 by converting it to fuels or other products. The acronym CCUS describes systems including both utilization and storage of captured CO2.
This study has analysed systems for CCS (carbon capture and storage) and CCU (carbon capture and utilization) and compared these with their respective reference scenarios. The study has been carried out using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology according to the ISO-standards 14044/48 and guidelines provided for CCU value chains. The LCAs have been performed for two industrial cases: Norske Skog Saugbrugs, a paper production plant, and Sarpsborg Avfallsenergi (SAE), a waste to energy (WtE) plant

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The project SYLFEED, sponsored by the Horizon 2020 programme in the EU, where the French technology company develops a process for producing proteins from wood, and where NORSUS is investigating and documenting the process‘ environmental performance, is reaching its final stage. Three webinars are planned to summarise the findings from the project and they are avaliable to all who want to learn about: 1) the scale up of Arbiom‘s production process; 2) the performance of the protein for aquaculture; and 3) the environmental performance of the protein compared to other protein sources. Read more on the webinars and sign up on the project website or through social media: Twitter and Linkedin.


This report is a part of the DGRADE project, funded by the Norwegian Research Council and Handelens Miljøfond. It presents the status of ongoing development of the LCA methodology with respect to plastic littering issues and how plastic products can be eco-designed for the avoidance of littering.

This report first summarises knowledge regarding littering, the reasons for it and its consequences. Thereafter, the inclusion of littering within the current LCA methodology and on-going work is described. Finally, a summarised literature review and synopses of research into the littered environment is presented, laying the foundation of eco-design tips for singe use plastic products for the avoidance of littering. The literature review comprises issues such as the amount, composition and location of the litter; research on the litterer, including social, demographic and behavioural factors; and research concerning littered items with reference such as size, form or design, which might influence littering. The literature review forms the basis for identifying independent considerations with respect to the littering potential of a specific item or product group.

The report concludes with suggestions, pointers and advice concerning eco-design, as a contribution to the work on the reduction of littering of single use plastic articles. These suggestions do not apply solely to single use articles and can be relevant in the case of many other product types.

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November 30, the TV program Sirkel-TV went live at, a website dedicated to circular economy. Prime Minister Erna Solberg was interviewed about her views an circular economy and the program presented various circular economy projects, from Tromsø in the north of Norway to Fredrikstad in the south. NORSUS and Norwegian Center for Circular Economy (NCCEs) both contributed by presenting the project Sustainable Innovation through Industrial Symbioses, funded by the Oslofjord Regional Research Fund.


Dette prosjektet skal undersøke hvordan man beregner sirkularitet for aluminium og andre materialer.

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I løpet av 2020 har NORSUS gjennomført livsløpsvurderinger for flere produkter fra Elkem Silicon Products. Foreløpig har Elkem og NORSUS sett på produkter fra tre av verkene i Norge og også frembrakt data og resultater for spesifikke råvarer, som for eksempel kvarts fra Tana.

The products studied are used by manufacturers in various industries – for instance aluminium, the chemical sector, buildings, and energy – to document the environmental performance of products we meet in our everyday life.


Denne rapporten er en delrapport i Mulighetsstudiet CCS-klynga på Øra, og det jobbes videre med leveransepakkene i prosjektet. Rapporten dokumenterer status for bruksområder og modenhet ved CCU, samt status for bruk av LCA-metodikk for både CCS og CCU. Det er gjennomført en systematisk litteraturstudie, som omfatter flere kilder/databaser, bl.a. Google Scholar og Scopus, som grunnlag for utvelgelse av relevante studier.

Basert på gjennomgang av relevant litteratur, er status for bruksområder for CO2 fra CO2-fangstanlegg kartlagt. Følgende tre hovedkategorier av bruksområder peker seg ut fordi de forventes å spille en rolle for etablering av CCU i fremtiden:

  • Biologisk konvertering til f.eks. algeproduksjon og kjemikaler
  • Kjemisk konvertering til f.eks. kjemikalier og hydrokarboner
  • Mineralisering, f.eks. til bruk i byggematerialer (betong)

Videre er et stort antall LCA-studier av CCS og CCU blitt gjennomgått som en del av dette arbeidet. CCS peker seg ut som en lovende løsning for reduksjon av CO2-utslipp. CCU kan ikke oppnå samme reduksjonspotensial som CCS, nettopp fordi det ikke fjerner CO2 fra atmosfæren slik CCS gjør. CCU kan heller ikke medføre negative utslipp, men det kan medføre reduksjon i utslipp sammenlignet med alternative løsninger (f.eks. et referansescenario).

Konkrete potensialer for reduksjon av klimagassutslipp som følge av CCU er foreløpig dokumentert i vesentlig mindre grad en CCS. Årsaken til dette er at eksisterende LCA-studier er gjennomført med ulike systemgrenser, noe som gjør sammenligninger vanskelig. Det verdt å merke seg at ingen av LCA-studiene er gjennomført med systemgrenser basert på retningslinjene fra A. Zimmermann et al. (2018). Det anbefales derfor å gjennomføre LCA-studier for CCU basert på disse retningslinjene, noe som vil bli gjort i det videre arbeidet i dette prosjektet.


For fjerde år på rad skal Østfoldforskning beregne Borregaards klimagassutslipp i henhold til GHG-protokollen. GHG-protokollen er en internasjonal anerkjent metode for beregning og rapportering av klimagassregnskap for bedrifter og organisasjoner.

Rapportering i henhold til GHG-protokollen skjer i tre ulike omfang, og de refereres til som Scope 1, Scope 2 og Scope 3. Scope 1 omfatter direkteutslipp av klimagasser innenfor egen virksomhet; Scope 2 omfatter indirekte utslipp av klimagasser fra innkjøpt elektrisitet, varme, kjøling og damp; mens Scope 3 omfatter andre indirekte utslipp av klimagasser som skjer andre steder i verdikjeden, f.eks produksjon av innkjøpte materialer. For å få en komplett beregning, rapporterer Borregaard inn sitt forbruk av materialer, kjemikalier og energibærere. Dette danner grunnlaget for beregningen av klimagassutslipp til Scope 3.