Search

News items
12.03.2024

In this literature study, our senior researchers Ingunn Saur Modahl and Hanne Lerche Raadal have examined how different carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) routes perform environmentally. The study shows that CCU systems where CO2 is mineralised (trapped as a mineral) and used to replace cement have the best climate profile, and that these systems have a better climate performance than systems where CO2 is stored only (CCS).

Direct use of captured CO2, for example in greenhouses, also seems to be beneficial. For systems capturing CO2 for production of fuels and chemicals the results are diverging and dependent on a set of preconditions. The main issue for these systems is the large amount of electricity needed to transform the captured CO2. The study shows that production of CCU fuels or chemicals can be a good way of transforming and storing renewable electricity in cases of ‘electricity lock-in’, for example if substituting fossil electricity generation is not possible due to transmission line capacity, or in the future when fossil electricity production is less relevant. In all other cases, the electricity needed for transforming CO2 into fuels or chemicals should rather be used to substitute fossil electricity sources.

The study has focused on finding reliable and quality assured Life Cycle Assessment-based results for climate change and use of resources. Recommended methodology regarding system boundaries, the use of system expansion to solve multifunctionality and the inclusion of reference systems has been in focus when searching for literature.

The researchers have aimed for making a factual basis in this debated topic, and hope that the study can give input to further research and political priorities for the reduction of climate change burdens and use of recources. Read the full report here

This report is a delivery in the ‘CCUS Verdiskapingspotensialet – næringsutvikling og innovasjon’ project by CCUS Norway for the Viken region.

Report
22.02.2024

Denne forstudien er finansiert av Regionale forskningsfond Vestfold og Telemark og de deltagendepartnerne. Vesar (Vestfold avfall og ressurs AS) har vært prosjektansvarlig med NORSUS som prosjektleder.De andre deltagende partnerne er Norsk senter for sirkulær økonom i (NCCE), Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge, Biosynergi AS og VOW ASA.

Det er benyttet Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) -metodikk for sammenligning av klimapåvirkning og bruk av primærenergi for to ulike behandlingsmåter for restavfall: pyrolyse med produksjon av kull og pyrolysegass og avfallsforbrenning. Begge behandlingsmåtene er analysert med og uten karbonfangst og -lagring (CCS). Det er viktig å påpeke at det er foretatt en rekke forutsetninger og forenklinger for gjennomføring av forstudien, og resultatene må vurderes i lys av dette.

Resultatene viser at pyrolyse av restavfall er en interessant behandlingsmåte sammenlignet med forbrenning med energiutnyttelse. For miljøpåvirkningskategorien klimapåvirkning kommer pyrolyse klart bedre ut enn forbrenning dersom CCS ikke inngår. Dersom CCS inngår, er rangeringen avhengig av hvor lagringsstabilt kullet fra pyrolyseprosessen forutsettes å være. Forbrenningsalternativet gir et resultat som ligger mellom de to pyrolysescenariene som forutsetter henholdsvis 100 % og 80 % lagringsstabilt kull. Det er verdt å presisere at pyrolyse kan medføre netto negative CO2-utslipp og dermed fjerning av CO2 fra atmosfæren selv uten fangst og lagring av CO2 fra forbrenning av pyrolysegasen.

Forbrenningsalternativet medfører lavest bruk av primærenergi uavhengig av om CCS inngår. For både forbrenning og pyrolyse øker energibruken ved implementering av CCS fordi både fangstteknologien og transport av fanget CO2 til lagring krever energi.

Det ble gjennomført en workshop for diskusjon av resultatene og relevante problemstillinger for et eventuelt hovedprosjekt den 31.1.2024. Med bakgrunn i dette, anbefales det å jobbe videre med å etablere et FoUhovedprosjekt for mer grundige bærekraftsanalyser for sammenligning av pyrolyse og avfallsforbrenning. Relevante utvidelser og problemstillinger for et hovedprosjekt er oppsummert til å være:

  • Inkludere flere miljøpåvirkningskategorier
  • Inkludere kostnader, eventuelt som en kost-/nytteanalyse
  • Vurdere relevante forbehandlingsmetoder for restavfall før pyrolyse.
  • Vurdere mulig bruksverdi for produsert kull, som for eksempel bruk som sorbent til PFAS-rensing og bruk i metallurgisk industri.
  • Analysere eventuell utlekkingsrate for tungmetaller som oppkonsentreres i kullet.
  • Analysere pyrolyse som en prosess for fjerning av miljøgifter i avfallet.
  • Flere scenarier/alternativer for utnyttelse og bruk av pyrolyseproduktene, som f.eks syngass.
  • Ulike energiutnyttelsesgrader og transportavstander avhengig av spesifikk lokalisering av relevant avfallsforbrennings- og pyrolyseanlegg.
  • Inkludere mere nøyaktige data for anleggene, for eksempel ved å ta med eventuelt støttebrensel for forbrenningsanlegget.
    Videreføring til et hovedprosjekt vil resultere i verdifull kunnskap for å definere avfallsbransjens strategiske veivalg for nye investeringer

News items
22.06.2023

From June 12th to June 15th, 2023, the 27th CIRED conference took place, this time in Rome. CIRED is the leading conference and exhibition on electricity distribution. It brings together distribution system operators (DSOs), suppliers, researchers, and other stakeholders to present and discuss important topics in the industry.

I år var det et spesielt stort fokus på nettselskapenes og bransjens rolle i overgangen til det grønne skiftet – som krever en overgang til fornybar energi, en storstilt utbygging av kraftnettet og en omstilling i hvordan nettselskapene opererer. I år deltok NORSUS med to konferanseartikler.

Irmeline de Sadeleer participated in a roundtable conference with her contribution titled "Environmental impacts from power distribution," where she presented results from various life cycle assessment (LCA) analyses of grid components and the power grid. She particularly emphasized that the industry should focus on reducing network losses and procuring low-carbon materials with a long lifespan. This generated significant interest among the participants.

Regina Skattenborg presented the paper titled "What Should DSOs Focus On For Reducing The Impacts On Climate Change When Developing And Operating Electricity Networks? A Case Study Of The Power Distribution Network In A Rural Area In Central Norway." The paper was developed as part of the ongoing Innovation Project “BmB” (Power Distribution with Sustainability). These contributions stood out at the conference as they were the only ones addressing the environmental consequences of power grid development and operation in a comprehensive manner by conducting an LCA of an entire electricity network. We recognize the importance of this in order to make knowledge-based decisions to reduce the environmental impact of the grid.

News items
14.03.2023

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by capturing and subsequently storing carbon dioxide (CO2). CCU (carbon capture and utilization), on the other hand, represents a way of recycling the carbon in the captured CO2 by converting it to fuels or other products. The acronym CCUS describes systems including both utilization and storage of captured CO2.

This report gives an overview of the three potential CO2 emissions sources to be captured: direct air capture, geothermal power generation and industrial point sources, and it shows whether the CO2 can be considered fossil or non-fossil. Furthermore, the main pathways for utilising captured CO2 are presented.

CCU systems connect two (or more) product systems; the first being the source of the CO2 and the second being the production system which uses CO2 as feedstock. Hence, CCU systems are multifunctional, and CO2 has a double role, representing both emission and feedstock.

The report presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in general with a deeper focus on how to solve multifunctionality. The recommendation is to apply system expansion without substitution and to compare the CCU system with a reference system. It is crucial to establish relevant system boundaries for the compared systems to ensure that all systems provide the same functions to society. The report includes a practical LCA guideline for CCU value chains to help avoiding methodological pitfalls.

Read the report

Report
09.03.2023

Denne rapporten er skrevet av NORSUS på oppdrag for Energigass Norge, Avfall Norge, Norges Bondelag, Biogass Oslofjord og Norsk Vann. Hensikten med arbeidet har vært å gi et bilde av mulighetsrommet for produksjon av biogass i Norge med tanke på aktuelle råstoff, teknologiutvikling og klimanytte.

Rapporten er delt inn i tre hoveddeler: teoretisk biogasspotensial fra nåværende og fremtidig råstoffbase med utgangspunkt i dagensteknologi, teoretisk biogasspotensial knyttet til mulig fremtidig teknologiutvikling og klimanytte knyttet til en høyere utnyttelse av biogasspotensialet enn i dag.

I denne rapporten er biogass definert som gasser av biogent opphav som inneholder metan. Energipotensialet fra metan betegnes dermed som biogasspotensial, uavhengig av produksjonsteknologi.
Videre er det lagt som en forutsetning at råstoff som skal brukes til biogassproduksjon er organiske avfallsog sidestrømmer. Energivekster er dermed ikke inklud

News items
10.08.2022

CCS (carbon capture and storage) is a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by capturing and subsequently storing CO2, while CCU (carbon capture and utilisation) is a way of recycling the carbon in the captured CO2 by converting it into new products. As CCU represents a multi-functional system, it is crucial to use relevant system boundaries and to define a joint functional unit when comparing CCU with CCS or with no capture. The application of system expansion ensures that the compared systems provide the same functions to society.

This study shows that it is today more climate friendly and energy efficient to produce conventional fuel and to use renewable electricity to substitute fossil power, than to produce fuel from captured CO2. I tilfelle der ein ikkje fortrenger fossilbasert kraft, kan CCU vere det beste valget. Dette kan for eksempel skje i framtida, dersom produksjonen av fossilbasert kraft blir mindre enn i dag. The scientific paper is free to download here

Facts

Title of the article: LCA of CCS and CCU compared with no capture: How should multi-functional systems be analysed?
Written by: Hanne Lerche Raadal and Ingunn Saur Modahl
Published in: E3S Web of Conferences, 21. Mai 2022, open access
Link: https://www.e3s-conferences.org/articles/e3sconf/abs/2022/16/e3sconf_lcm2022_03001/e3sconf_lcm2022_03001.html
DOI10.1051/e3sconf/202234903001

News items
20.12.2021

The research project Digitalized Node-trading with GO (DINGO) has been carried out in the period autumn 2018 to autumn 2021 in a collaboration between Becour AS, NORSUS, Stiftinga Vestlandsforsking, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Østfold Energi, Zephyr AS, Lyse produksjon AS, Sariba AS and Turku School of Economics. DINGO has resulted in a digital meeting place for large producers of green energy and companies that want to tell the outside world that they use renewable energy. NORSUS has led the work packages related to system development and has used innovation and organizational research in its implementation. Systems thinking, which is also found in value chain analyses and LCA, has also been important in "breaking the code" with the complexity of the research challenges associated with building the matching algorithms between production and consumption of energy.

Read more about the project (norwegian) here.

News items
15.12.2021

Norway is a world leader in electric cars. There is no other country where electric cars make up such a large share of new car sales as here. However, the fact that the electric car is emission-free in the use phase does not mean that the electric car itself is climate-friendly. When using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), one can evaluate different fuels/technologies against each other in a holistic perspective. You can listen to Hanne Lerche Raadal, Head of Research, talk about LCA applied for electric cars at the #Klimakvarteret.

The #Klimakvarteret is a 15-minute digital lecture from a researcher on a topic related to climate change or climate solutions and is organized by the The Norwegian Climate Foundation .

Report
07.12.2021

Waste 2 Power (W2P) – høyverdig energigjenvinning av plastavfall» (High quality energy recovery from plastic waste) is a pre-project (forprosjekt) in the regional development program FORREGION funded by the Research Council of Norway and administrated by Viken county council. The project begun with a collaboration between Vaia Miljø AS and NORSUS.

The project aims to understand the potential for commercializing a Waste to Energy prototype or Waste2Power (W2P) acquired by Vaia Miljø from Italy for energy recovery of waste and establish cooperation with relevant R&D actors. The project includes four main tasks covering the techno-economic analysis of the W2P technology (task 1), the development of an industrial plan based on the availability of plastic waste (task 2), a simplified environmental analysis by Life Cycle Assessment methodology (task 3), and the development of a plan for further research activities (task 4)”

News items
29.10.2021

On Thursday 28 October, NORSUS was represented at the event Energidagen 2021 a career day for students at NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology). The event is organised by the Energy and Environmental Engineering students' association and EnergiKontakten. Our researchers Irmeline de Sadeleer and Pieter Callewaert represented NORSUS and got the opportunity of talking to several interesting students. We are very satisfied with the event and look forward to potential opportunities in the future - both in the form of summer jobs - and potential future research positions.