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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by capturing and subsequently storing carbon dioxide (CO2). CCU (carbon capture and utilization), on the other hand, represents a way of recycling the carbon in the captured CO2 by converting it to fuels or other products. The acronym CCUS describes systems including both utilization and storage of captured CO2.

This report gives an overview of the three potential CO2 emissions sources to be captured: direct air capture, geothermal power generation and industrial point sources, and it shows whether the CO2 can be considered fossil or non-fossil. Furthermore, the main pathways for utilising captured CO2 are presented.

CCU systems connect two (or more) product systems; the first being the source of the CO2 and the second being the production system which uses CO2 as feedstock. Hence, CCU systems are multifunctional, and CO2 has a double role, representing both emission and feedstock.

The report presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in general with a deeper focus on how to solve multifunctionality. The recommendation is to apply system expansion without substitution and to compare the CCU system with a reference system. It is crucial to establish relevant system boundaries for the compared systems to ensure that all systems provide the same functions to society. The report includes a practical LCA guideline for CCU value chains to help avoiding methodological pitfalls.

Read the report


Denne rapporten er skrevet av NORSUS på oppdrag for Energigass Norge, Avfall Norge, Norges Bondelag, Biogass Oslofjord og Norsk Vann. Hensikten med arbeidet har vært å gi et bilde av mulighetsrommet for produksjon av biogass i Norge med tanke på aktuelle råstoff, teknologiutvikling og klimanytte.

Rapporten er delt inn i tre hoveddeler: teoretisk biogasspotensial fra nåværende og fremtidig råstoffbase med utgangspunkt i dagensteknologi, teoretisk biogasspotensial knyttet til mulig fremtidig teknologiutvikling og klimanytte knyttet til en høyere utnyttelse av biogasspotensialet enn i dag.

I denne rapporten er biogass definert som gasser av biogent opphav som inneholder metan. Energipotensialet fra metan betegnes dermed som biogasspotensial, uavhengig av produksjonsteknologi.
Videre er det lagt som en forutsetning at råstoff som skal brukes til biogassproduksjon er organiske avfallsog sidestrømmer. Energivekster er dermed ikke inklud

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CCS (carbon capture and storage) is a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by capturing and subsequently storing CO2, while CCU (carbon capture and utilisation) is a way of recycling the carbon in the captured CO2 by converting it into new products. As CCU represents a multi-functional system, it is crucial to use relevant system boundaries and to define a joint functional unit when comparing CCU with CCS or with no capture. The application of system expansion ensures that the compared systems provide the same functions to society.

This study shows that it is today more climate friendly and energy efficient to produce conventional fuel and to use renewable electricity to substitute fossil power, than to produce fuel from captured CO2. I tilfelle der ein ikkje fortrenger fossilbasert kraft, kan CCU vere det beste valget. Dette kan for eksempel skje i framtida, dersom produksjonen av fossilbasert kraft blir mindre enn i dag. The scientific paper is free to download here


Title of the article: LCA of CCS and CCU compared with no capture: How should multi-functional systems be analysed?
Written by: Hanne Lerche Raadal and Ingunn Saur Modahl
Published in: E3S Web of Conferences, 21. Mai 2022, open access

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The research project Digitalized Node-trading with GO (DINGO) has been carried out in the period autumn 2018 to autumn 2021 in a collaboration between Becour AS, NORSUS, Stiftinga Vestlandsforsking, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Østfold Energi, Zephyr AS, Lyse produksjon AS, Sariba AS and Turku School of Economics. DINGO has resulted in a digital meeting place for large producers of green energy and companies that want to tell the outside world that they use renewable energy. NORSUS has led the work packages related to system development and has used innovation and organizational research in its implementation. Systems thinking, which is also found in value chain analyses and LCA, has also been important in "breaking the code" with the complexity of the research challenges associated with building the matching algorithms between production and consumption of energy.

Read more about the project (norwegian) here.

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Norway is a world leader in electric cars. There is no other country where electric cars make up such a large share of new car sales as here. However, the fact that the electric car is emission-free in the use phase does not mean that the electric car itself is climate-friendly. When using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), one can evaluate different fuels/technologies against each other in a holistic perspective. You can listen to Hanne Lerche Raadal, Head of Research, talk about LCA applied for electric cars at the #Klimakvarteret.

The #Klimakvarteret is a 15-minute digital lecture from a researcher on a topic related to climate change or climate solutions and is organized by the The Norwegian Climate Foundation .


Waste 2 Power (W2P) – høyverdig energigjenvinning av plastavfall» (High quality energy recovery from plastic waste) is a pre-project (forprosjekt) in the regional development program FORREGION funded by the Research Council of Norway and administrated by Viken county council. The project begun with a collaboration between Vaia Miljø AS and NORSUS.

The project aims to understand the potential for commercializing a Waste to Energy prototype or Waste2Power (W2P) acquired by Vaia Miljø from Italy for energy recovery of waste and establish cooperation with relevant R&D actors. The project includes four main tasks covering the techno-economic analysis of the W2P technology (task 1), the development of an industrial plan based on the availability of plastic waste (task 2), a simplified environmental analysis by Life Cycle Assessment methodology (task 3), and the development of a plan for further research activities (task 4)”

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On Thursday 28 October, NORSUS was represented at the event Energidagen 2021 a career day for students at NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology). The event is organised by the Energy and Environmental Engineering students' association and EnergiKontakten. Our researchers Irmeline de Sadeleer and Pieter Callewaert represented NORSUS and got the opportunity of talking to several interesting students. We are very satisfied with the event and look forward to potential opportunities in the future - both in the form of summer jobs - and potential future research positions.


"Power distribution with sustainability" will provide transmission system operators (TSOs) with a framework for the mapping and documentation of environmental sustainability, in the establishment, operation and maintenance of components, together with their dismantling for reuse or recycling.

This framework must be suitable for the production of both data and results for anything, from major, broad analyses of the energy system, to extremely detailed analyses and the selection, for example, of individual components in a transformer.

The project results will contribute to an overview for the TSOs, when identifying the relevant environmental challenges. This will enable them to develop strategies and set goals for their work on internal environmental sustainability.

There is an increasing requirement for the documentation of sustainability, both in the case of individual actors within the energy sector, and for the energy sector as a whole.

The framework must be capable of being used in communicating with customers, suppliers and the authorities. This will be achieved through the specific selection of robust and scientifically based indicators for the environmental and resource effects of the distribution grid.

As a result of this innovation, environmental sustainability will become an important component in the business management of participating TSOs. It will enable them to make changes in their distribution and transformation systems, and thus lead them in a sustainable direction.

The framework must also be suitable for use in the documentation of the overall sustainability of network operations in Norway.

Among the research questions the most important will be:

  • Which components in the network contribute environmental challenges relating to network operations?
  • How can land use and land changes be quantified, alongside the possible effects on biodiversity from the distribution of electricity?
  • Which environmental indicators with their associated calculation methods, are relevant in assessing the environmental impact of network operations?
  • How can these environmental indicators be employed in the strategy development of TSOs?

The results from the project will be in constant use in establishing the strategic goals of the TSOs, being implemented as assessment criteria in business management and strategy plans, as well as in the reporting of environmental and climate accounting.

The project manager is Energi Norge AS. Project leader Ketil Sagen.

R&D suppliers are NORSUS, NMBU and Geodata.

The transmission system operators participating in the project are: Agder Energi Nett AS, BKK Nett AS, Elvia AS, Lede AS and Tensio TN AS.

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At the CIRED conference, Irmeline de Sadeleer presented some results from our joint research project with ABB Electrification Norway. We have performed carbon footprint assessment of a switchgear where we have used four different calculation methods. The results show that there are substantially variations across the studies, and we question how best to solve this challenge so that manufacturers and customers can produce and order the most environmentally friendly solutions.

The topic is considered so interesting that NORSUS by Anne Rønning has been invited to sit on the panel for a roundtable conference with the theme «Green Network Solutions».

ABB has published a video summarising our paper.

The project is funded by Oslofjordfondet.


Denne rapporten er en del av forskningsprosjektet Bærekraftig biogass, som er finansiert gjennom Forskningsrådets EnergiX-program.

Opprinnelsesgarantiordningen for elektrisitet er en europeisk ordning som er videreført og styrket i det reviderte fornybardirektivet (2018/2001/EU, ofte referert til som RED II). Ordningen inngår som en del av det felles rammeverket i det indre energimarked i EØS-området. Den ble innført med EUs første fornybardirektiv i 2001 for å gi forbrukere et prinsipielt valg. En opprinnelsesgaranti er et bevis på hvilke kilder en gitt mengde strøm er produsert fra. Ordningen ble innført med EUs første fornybardirektiv (Direktiv 2001/77/EC) i 2001 og er videreført i de reviderte fornybardirektivene (Direktiv 2009/28/EC og 2018/2001/EU). I henhold til EUs Eldirektiv (Direktiv 2009/72/EC) skal alle kraftleverandører informere sine kunder om hvordan kraften de solgte foregående år ble produsert. Dette kalles en varedeklarasjon.

I det reviderte fornybardirektivet av 2018 (RED II, Artikkel 19) er ordningen for opprinnelsesgarantier utvidet til også å omfatte gass (inkludert hydrogen), i tillegg til elektrisitet og varme/kjøling.

Den viktigste forskjellen mellom et opprinnelsesgarantisystem for elektrisitet (som eksisterer i dag) og for biogass, er bærekraftskriteriene med tilhørende krav til massebalanse, som kreves for bioenergi dersom den skal kunne inkluderes i et lands måloppnåelse for fornybar energi.

Det pågår et arbeid med å revidere CEN-standarden EN 16325 Guarantees of Origin related to energy – Guarantees of Origin for Electricity til også å omfatte gass, hydrogen, samt kjøling/varme, som antas ferdigstilt i løpet av 2022. Vurderingen av opprettelsen av et system med opprinnelsesgarantier for biogass bør derfor avventes og sees i sammenheng med dette arbeidet. I ovennevnte standard er det foreløpig lagt til grunn at det er frivillig å rapportere på bærekraftskriteriene.

Uavhengig av om det vurderes å innføre et opprinnelsesgarantisystem for biogass, anbefales det derfor å starte arbeidet med å utvikle en nasjonal database/register for flytende og gassformig drivstoff (jfr. RED II/artikkel 28), som inkluderer rapportering av bærekraftskriteriene. Det anbefales at dette arbeidet sees i sammenheng med tilsvarende arbeid som skal settes i gang i Sverige (Energimyndigheten, 2019a), som også har en større andel av sitt biogassvolum offgrid (leveres ikke inn på fells gassnett). I tillegg bør arbeidet med utvikling og oppretting av et slikt register samkjøres med det systemet som Miljødirektoratet i dag har for alle som omsetter biodrivstoff og flytende biobrensel om rapportering oppfyllelse av bærekraftskriteriene, og med dagens rapportering fra norske biogassanlegg til Miljødirektoratet og SSB. Resultatene fra dette arbeidet vil danne et viktig grunnlag for en vurdering av en fremtidig kobling av et slikt registeret til et eventuelt opprinnelsesgarantisystem for biogass.